With the later end of the Portuguese Empire, the British, Dutch and French in particular gained easier access to Persian seaborne trade, although they, unlike the Portuguese, did not arrive as colonisers, but as merchant adventurers. The mentally unstable Ismāil, the son of Tahmāsp and the purblind Muhammad Khudābanda were some of the candidates but did not get the support of all the Qizilbāsh chiefs. There were no particular place assigned for the administration of justice. He was responsible for introducing all guests, receiving petitions presented to the Shah and reading them if required. According to author Moojan Momen, “up to the middle of the 19th century there were very few mujtahids (three or four) anywhere at any one time,” but “several hundred existed by the end of the 19th century.”, Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, commonly referenced to using the title Allamah, was a highly influential scholar during the 17th century (Safavid era). Although Ismail I initially gained mastery over Azerbaijan alone, the Safavids ultimately won the struggle for power in all of Persia which had been going on for nearly a century between various dynasties and political forces. Later, during the Safavid and especially Qajar period, the Shia Ulema’s power increased and they were able to exercise a role, independent of or compatible with the government. A specific Turkic language was attested in Safavid Persia during the 16th and 17th centuries, a language that Europeans often called Persian Turkish (“Turc Agemi”, “lingua turcica agemica”), which was a favourite language at the court and in the army because of the Turkic origins of the Safavid dynasty. Henceforth a treaty, signed in Qasr-e Shirin, was established delineating a border between Iran and Turkey in 1639, a border which still stands in northwest Iran/southeast Turkey. Had the gunpowder technology in mughal empire to fire greater distances. The next most important mount, when traveling through Persia, was the mule. According to R.M. R�`̇��w��0.7ҧy�Cr��*X��/�� ��R;��K"9Mt5�p  The Ottoman sultans addressed him as the king of Persian lands and the heir to Jamshid and Kai Khosrow. Bangladesh, Afghanistan. The arguably most renowned historian from this time was Iskandar Beg Munshi. x��[m�۸� �A�Z���")�X���d/)�m�[�@�~��X�-mm9������dɫ��˝,�Ù�<3d�nM�Y>7����M�,���U���~����/뫯��e�lʺZ,�ۏw����wW�"2xܼ'��AG�L�,�|�Ø�~ς������;��ͯ���}=K����, ��L�/�l^����3�����\���q[ٿ�ǿ�� ���2VQZx+~���*N�XOZ$Q�:C���)�;f�9�J��^���_��|h���< �f���2�� Since two other sons had predeceased him, the result was personal tragedy for Shah Abbas. Gulams: Tahmasp had started introducing Georgian, Musketers: realizing the advantages that the Ottomans had because of their firearms, Shah Abbas was at pains to equip both the qurchi and the ghulam soldiers with up-to-date weaponry. However, a mutiny among his officers who refused to spend the winter at Tabriz forced him to withdraw across territory laid waste by the Safavid forces, eight days later”. Robbers had their right wrists amputated the first time, and sentenced to death on any subsequent occasion. After Safī al-Dīn, the leadership of the Safaviyya passed onto Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā († 794/1391–92). The school reached its apogee with that of the Iranian philosopher Mulla Sadra who is arguably the most significant Islamic philosopher after Avicenna. Ismail followed the line of Iranian and Turkmen rulers prior to him by assumption of the title “Padishah-i-Iran”, previously held by Uzun Hasan and many other Iranian kings. The women came to occupy prominent positions in the harems of the Safavid elite, particularly the Shah’s, while the men were given special training, on completion of which they were either enrolled in one of the newly created ghulam regiments, or employed in the royal household. From the time of Shah Abbas onwards, more land was brought under the direct control of the shah. Traditional architecture evolved in its patterns and methods leaving its impact on the architecture of the following periods. Thanks in advanced! After Uzun Hassan’s death, his son Ya’qub felt threatened by the growing Safavid religious influence.  They were even hired by wealthy Persian merchants to travel to Europe when they wanted to create commercial bases there, and the Armenians eventually established themselves in cities like Bursa, Aleppo, Venice, Livorno, Marseilles and Amsterdam. Archery took first place. Introduction to the Safavid Dynasty: Rise and Empire. Other historians, such as Vladimir Minorsky and Roger Savory, refute this idea:. Shah Abbas wanted to undermine this political structure, and the recreation of Isfahan, as a Grand capital of Persia, was an important step in centralizing the power.  He then went on to reduce the number of qizilbash provincial governorships and systematicly moved qizilbash governors to other districts, thus disrupting their ties with the local community, and reducing their power. Despite falling revenues and military threats, later shahs had lavish lifestyles. Safavid Empire is founded In 1501 the Safavid Empire was founded by Ismail I. Nov 12, 1508. Safavid Iran was one of the Islamic “gunpowder empires”, along with its neighbours, the Ottoman and Mughalempires. The Safavid Empire dates from the rule of Shah Ismail (ruled 1501-1524). Except for Shah Abbas II, the Safavid rulers after Abbas I were therefore rendered ineffectual, and the Iranian government declined and finally collapsed when a serious military threat emerged on its eastern border in the early eighteenth century. endobj When the second Persian vakil was placed in command of a Safavid army in Transoxiana, the Qizilbash, considering it a dishonor to be obliged to serve under him, deserted him on the battlefield with the result that he was slain. , As noted before, a key aspect of the Persian character was its love of luxury, particularly on keeping up appearances. Rival Qizilbāsh factions fought amongst themselves for the control of the empire until Shāh Tahmāsp came of age and reasserted his authority. 100. The founder of the dynasty, Shah Isma’il, adopted the title of “Persian Emperor” Pādišah-ī Īrān, with its implicit notion of an Iranian state stretching from Khorasan as far as Euphrates, and from the Oxus to the southern Territories of the Persian Gulf. He thought that there was nothing like it in France or Italy:, Despite this, he was disappointed when travelling the country and witnessing the abundance of land that was not irrigated, or the fertile plains that were not cultivated, something he thought was in stark contrast to Europe.  According to Chardin, they were also more abundant than in the Mughal or Ottoman Empires, where they were less frequent but larger. The Ottomans, a Sunni dynasty, considered the active recruitment of Turkmen tribes of Anatolia for the Safavid cause as a major threat. They wore red headgear with 12 folds, and became known as the “redheads.” In 1499, the leader of the redheads was a 14-year-old named Isma’il. It was perhaps this sort of attitude towards the rest of the world that accounted for the ignorance of Persians regarding other countries of the world.  He wrote the Al-Hikma al-muta‘aliya fi-l-asfar al-‘aqliyya al-arba‘a (“The Transcendent Philosophy of the Four Journeys of the Intellect”), a meditation on what he called ‘meta philosophy’ which brought to a synthesis the philosophical mysticism of Sufism, the theology of Shi’a Islam, and the Peripatetic and Illuminationist philosophies of Avicenna and Suhrawardi. The leadership of the order passed on from Sadr ud-Dīn Mūsā to his son Khwādja Ali († 1429) and in turn to his son Ibrāhīm († 1429–47). As he describes them,, Unlike Europeans, they much disliked physical activity, and were not in favor of exercise for its own sake, preferring the leisure of repose and luxuries that life could offer. In response, a Ghilzai Afghan chieftain named Mir Wais Hotak revolted and killed Gurgin Khan, the Safavid governor of the region, along with his army.  The establishment of Shi’ism as the state religion led to various Sufi orders openly declaring their Shi’i position, and others, to promptly assume Shi’ism. Battle at Chaldiran (1514) Ottomans nearly destroyed the Safavid Empire but lacked resources, although they occupied the capital of Tabriz temporarily. Though that language might generally be identified as Middle Azerbaijanian, it’s not yet possible to define exactly the limits of this language, both in linguistic and territorial respects. It was certainly not an oligarchy, nor was it an aristocracy. Event 2: Shia Islam becoming the state religion. To celebrate his achievement, he took the ancient Persian title of shah or king. Fine silks. But it was Shah Safi, under influence by his Prime Minister, Saru Taqi, that initiated the program of trying to increase the royal revenues by buying land from the governors and putting in place local commissioners. There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Persian Kurdistan,and later moved to Azerbaijan, finally settling in the 11th century CE at Ardabil. Past and present contact between Russia and Iran have long been complicatedly multi-faceted; often wavering between collaboration and rivalry. Safavid Persia bordered the Ottoman empire,and as both were expansionist they were bound to come into conflict on their common borders. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a spice in India. The most successful Safavid emperor was Shah … The language chiefly used by the Safavid court and military establishment was Azerbaijani.  Shah Abbas was determined to greatly expand this trade, but faced the problem of having to deal with the Ottomans, who controlled the two most vital routes: the route across Arabia to the Mediterranean ports, and the route through Anatolia and Istanbul. Indeed, one of the greatest legacies of the Safavids is the architecture. SAFAVID EMPIRE Empire & Esmail Neighbors : Sunnie Ottomans & Uzbek which were on northeast not sides went to war with savfavid. Safavid and Ottoman Empire’s always had a fierce tension with each other, and not always politically. The Safavid Empire long fought its two enemies - the Ottomans on the west and the Uzbeks on the east and naturally, that sucked out all the energy out of the Army and their strength weakened. Historical information. The capture of Baghdad by Ismail I in 1509 was only followed by its loss to the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I in 1534. Safavid were Muslim and they had war because of that. They would thus retain the official ownership and secure their land from being confiscated by royal commissioners or local governors, as long as a percentage of the revenues from the land went to the ulama. After the decline of the Timurid Empire (1370–1506), Persia was politically splintered, giving rise to a number of religious movements. The Safavid Empire claimed Ismail was that prophet.  In terms of identity, it should be noted that the authority of the Safavids were religiously based and they based their legitimacy on being direct male descendants of the Ali, the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad, and the first Shi’ite Imam. Tabriz was the center of this industry. The relationship between the Turkic-speaking ‘Turks’ and Persian-speaking ‘Tajiks’ was symbiotic, yet some form of rivalry did exist between the two. A third route was therefore devised which circumvented Ottoman territory. GENEALOGY—THE ANCESTORS OF THE SAFAVIDS AND ITS MULTI-CULTURAL IDENTITY, ALLIANCES TO THE EAST—THE MUGHAL EMPEROR AT THE SHAH’S COURT, DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS IN A TOTALITARIAN SOCIETY, THE ARMENIAN MERCHANTS AND THE TRADE OF SILK, THE ISFAHAN SCHOOL—ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY REVIVED, THE LANGUAGES OF THE COURT, MILITARY, ADMINISTRATION AND CULTURE, Kurdish stronghold of Dimdim was captured, Al-Hikma al-muta‘aliya fi-l-asfar al-‘aqliyya al-arba‘a, http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/Safavid_Empire, Huṣayn Kīā Chalavī, the local ruler of Semnān, Shahsevans: these were 12,000 strong and built up from the small group of. The Shah himself exercised his own measures for keeping his ministers under control by fostering an atmosphere of rivalry and competitive surveillance. In describing the lady’s clothing, he noted that Persian dress revealed more of the figure than did the European, but that women appeared differently depending on whether they were at home in the presence of friends and family, or if they were in the public. , Under the governance of the strong shahs, especially during the first half of the 17th century, traveling through Persia was easy because of good roads and the caravanserais, that were strategically placed along the route. 100. The judge (qazi) was informed of relevant points involved and would decide whether or not to take up the case. By choosing the central city of Isfahan, fertilized by the Zāyande roud (“The life-giving river“), lying as an oasis of intense cultivation in the midst of a vast area of arid landscape, he both distanced his capital from any future assaults by the Ottomans and the Uzbeks, and at the same time gained more control over the Persian Gulf, which had recently become an important trading route for the Dutch and British East India Companies.. What is Iraq and Iran . Mughal Empire lied on the lands of modern India, Nepal, and Bhutan. The order at this time was transformed into a religious movement which conducted religious propaganda throughout Persia, Syria and Asia Minor, and most likely had maintained its Sunni Shafi’ite origin at that time. During the reign of Tahmasp, Shah Humayun of Mughal Hindustan found himself in a desperate situation, with devastating wars being fought against the Afghans and the Uzbeks and Humayuns brother, Kamran, attempting a coup d’état. Eventually Abbas became frustrated with Spain, as he did with the Holy Roman Empire, which wanted him to make his 170,000 Armenian subjects swear allegiance to the Pope but did not trouble to inform the shah when the Emperor Rudolf signed a peace treaty with the Ottomans. The Chief architect of this colossal task of urban planning was Shaykh Bahai (Baha’ ad-Din al-`Amili), who focused the programme on two key features of Shah Abbas’s master plan: the Chahar Bagh avenue, flanked at either side by all the prominent institutions of the city, such as the residences of all foreign dignitaries. He blamed this on misgovernment, the sparse population of the country, and lack of appreciation of agriculture amongst the Persians.  The most important local rulers about 1500 were: Ismāil was able to unite all these lands under the Iranian Empire he created. They are very favorably drawn to the sciences, the liberal and mechanical arts. The Shah had a dozen of each in his service and would usually be accompanied by three doctors and three astrologers, who were authorized to sit by his side on various occasions. When he died on 19 January 1629, he had no son capable of succeeding him.. Shah Abbas ordered a general massacre in Beradost and Mukriyan (Mahabad, reported by Eskandar Beg Monshi, Safavid Historian (1557–1642), in “Alam Ara Abbasi”) and resettled the Turkic Afshar tribe in the region while deporting many Kurdish tribes to Khorasan. Il y a 10 années. Social classes, appointing each class a role.  In the late seventeenth century, Iranian merchants established a permanent presence as far north as Narva on the Baltic sea, in what now is Estonia. The ottomans were Sunni Muslims,the Safavids Shia Muslims.They were therefore enemies,and fought several wars in the 16th and 17th centuries. He was perhaps the closest advisor to the Shah, and, as such, functioned as his eyes and ears within the Court. The legal system was built up of two branches: civil law, which had its roots in sharia, received wisdom, and urf, meaning traditional experience and very similar to the Western form of common law. As the former represented the “people of the sword” and the latter, “the people of the pen“, high-level official posts would naturally be reserved for the Persians. Key Terms . As such, the status of medicine in the Safavid period did not change much, and relied as much on these works as ever before. Ismāil was known as a brave and charismatic youth, zealous with regards to his Shi’a faith, and believed himself to be of divine descent—practically worshipped by his Qizilbāshfollowers. The Ottoman Empire started in this country and ended in this current day country. In 1514, Bayezid‘s son, Sultan Selim I marched through Anatolia and reached the plain of Chaldiran near the city of Khoy, and a decisive battle was fought there (Battle of Chaldiran). The 150-year tug-of-war accentuated the Sunni and Shi’a rift in Iraq. army. The main imports were spice, textiles (woolens from Europe, cottons from Gujarat), metals, coffee, and sugar. In the 16th century, carpet weaving evolved from a nomadic and peasant craft to a well-executed industry with specialization of design and manufacturing.  A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan. The Ottoman Empire started in this country and ended in this current day country. As a result of the Mongol conquest and the relative religious tolerance of the Ilkhanids, Shia dynasties were re-established in Iran, Sarbedaran in Khorasan being the most important. Since the Safavid Empire had a far weaker agrarian base than the Ottoman Empire, it is not surprising that the peasants carried less political weight. answer choices . The Silk Road which led through northern Iran to India revived in the 16th century.  For his part, Abbas declared that he “preferred the dust from the shoe soles of the lowest Christian to the highest Ottoman personage.”, In 1599, Abbas sent his first diplomatic mission to Europe.  Thus, this new group eventually came to constitute a powerful “third force” within the state, alongside the Tajik Persians and the Qizilbash Turks, and it only goes to prove the meritocratic society of the Safavids. Iran became a feudal theocracy: the Shah was held to be the divinely ordained head of state and religion. , Due to his obsessive fear of assassination, Shah Abbas either put to death or blinded any member of his family who aroused his suspicion.  It remains only a small minority in the Shia Muslim world. , The shah had set great store on an alliance with Spain, the chief opponent of the Ottomans in Europe. Pretty much everything you need to know about the Safavid Dynasty revolves around one of two things: 1. According to R. M. Savory, “Salim’s plan was to winter at Tabriz and complete the conquest of Persia the following spring. The Safavids were a dynastic family that ruled over modern-day Iran. , It achieved its greatest influence in the late Safavid and early post-Safavid era, when it dominated Twelver Shia Islam. , Shah Abbas realized that in order to retain absolute control over his empire without antagonizing the Qizilbash, he needed to create reforms that reduced the dependency that the shah had on their military support.  There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Persian Kurdistan, and later moved to Azerbaijan, finally settling in the 11th century CE at Ardabil. The English East India Company also began to take an interest in Iran and in 1622 four of its ships helped Abbas retake Hormuz from the Portuguese in the Capture of Ormuz (1622). ), and the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I, until Shāh Abbās (q.v.) As he describes them:. Unlike Usulis, Akhbari did and do not follow marjas who practice ijtihad. In the 16th century, the Turcophone Safavid family of Ardabil in Azerbaijan, probably of Turkicized Iranian, origin, conquered Iran and established Turkic, the language of the court and the military, as a high-status vernacular and a widespread contact language, influencing spoken Persian, while written Persian, the language of high literature and civil administration, remained virtually unaffected in status and content. They correctly identified the three key points to control all seaborne trade between Asia and Europe: The Gulf of Aden, The Persian Gulf and the Straits of Malacca by cutting off and controlling these strategic locations with high taxation. Isfahan bears the most prominent samples of the Safavid architecture, all constructed in the years after Shah Abbas I permanently moved the capital there in 1598: the Imperial Mosque, Masjid-e Shah, completed in 1630, the Imam Mosque (Masjid-e Imami) the Lutfallah Mosque and the Royal Palace. And, just as the higher levels of the social hierarchy was divided between the Turkish “men of the sword” and the Persian “men of the pen”; so were the lower level divided between the Turcoman tribes, who were cattle breeders and lived apart from the surrounding population, and the Persians, who were peasants and settled agriculturalists. The beginning of the 17th century saw the power of the Qizilbash decline, the original militia that had helped Ismail I capture Tabriz and which had gained many administrative powers over the centuries. They were close with Iraq and Iran and they traded things with them, Iraq was the majority of the population and converted over. In 1609–10, a war broke out between Kurdish tribes and the Safavid Empire. Who persecuted the Shi'a for their views? Chardin specifically noticed the rank of doctors and astrologers and the respect that the Shahs had for them. Islamic philosophy flourished in the Safavid era in what scholars commonly refer to the School of Isfahan. Hotakball, Afsharid dynastyball. The Ilkhanid ruler Öljaitüconverted to Twelver Shiism in the 13th century. This military force would serve the shah only and eventually consisted of four separate branches:. The Mughals expanded and controlled territory in this country. Time line of the Safavid Empire Timeline created by amontuori. When Shah Tahmasp entered the throne at a young age, Persia was in a dire state. After subsequent campaigns, the Safavids recaptured Baghdad in 1623 yet lost it again to Murad IV in 1638. Economically robust and politically stable, this period saw a flourishing growth of theological sciences. 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